Moby Dick is an epic-novel with epic-dimensions to it. Moby Dick, as simple as it is on the superficial level has multifarious dimensions to it. A reason for the richness of the novel is the different layers of meaning that can be ferreted out from the novel. The metaphysical overtones contribute to this aspect. We may consider the different metaphysical aspects.

Ahab’s Transcendentalism

Ahab’s monomaniacal ambition has transcendental overtones. He does not check his ambitions on the basis whether they are good or evil, but only on the ground that they are entirely his. His monomaniacal tendencies are elevated by Melville who asserts that it is “a crucifixion on his face” and “the nameless overbearing of some mighty woe.” However, the novel can be an indictment of Transcendentalism as well in that it is an indictment of individualism as Ahab’s towering efforts are crushed towards the end.

Apart from making him a transcendentalist, he also makes his protagonist defy the symbolic perception that transmutes the instinctive violence of the white whale to existential frustration. Ahab’s tendency to symbolic thinking leads him to seeing his adversary “that intangible malignity that has been from the beginning. But this tendency also betrays in him in an inflated sense of obligation to give an outlet to “all the general hate and rage felt by his whole race from Adam down.”

At another level, it also symbolizes man’s quest for truth, the ultimate way to reach God. In this way, Ishmael’s metaphysical leanings point to a more liberal religion that gives heathens also a place. The religion turns out to be quite a humanistic one where in spite being a Christian, he poses to worship an idol for Quegeg’s sake. The very fact that there are Egyptian, Hindu, Persian, Greek and Christian myths utilized in the book, proves that it is the making of a more liberal religion.

Ishmael’s Metaphysical Leanings

He raises a number of metaphysical questions and is baffled by the mystery of the Universe. Ishmael knows his tendency to think in the metaphysical terms when in the course of his work on one occasion, he feels that the various parts of the apparatus before him symbolize Chance, Free will and Necessity. He feels that he himself is a “shuttle mechanically weaving and waving away at the Fates. Ishmael‘s metaphysical meditation also finds expression when he explains what might have been visualized. For instance, the sea was probably carrying Pip’s soul alive to wondrous depths,where strange shapes of the primitive floated before his eyes. His references to various stories of the Bible point to the metaphysical pre-occupation. In the chapter “The Hyena“ he deals with the comic impersonality of the Universe with a naturalistic vision. A hyena is a dog-like animal whose howl is like laughter. Thus we have he phrase “the laughing Hyena”. In the chapter, the universe is regarded as a joker laughing at the plight of human beings. The chapter “The Try Walks” is a highly technical chapter giving off philosophical evocations.

Conflict between Science and Nature

At another level, it appears to be a conflict between science and religion. Ahab is essentially the man of science, his ambition is one based on reason; and reason devoid of moral principles is everything to him. Thus Ahab’s pursing the whale symbolizes man’s scientific explorations against Nature. Nature in the form of the white whale appears noble and pure indeed. However it does revolt against the injustices of man. The attack of the whale against man can be taken as a sum total of all natural disasters and calamities and, indeed nature at the same time is innocent too. Please note that Ahab’s was swallowed by the white whale when he was chasing and provoking Moby Dick.

Conflict between Man and Religion

The struggle of man against God is also perceived in the novel. Moby Dick may be taken as the miniature form of all the nobility, grandeur omnipotence, etc right from when Moby Dick is mentioned, we can feel his presence till the end-thus also the omnipresence of God. The novel thus exemplifies how insignificant man’s pursuits are in the face of God’s opulence. Ahab’s two cardinal defects are egocentric self-importance and egoistic malice that are destroyed in the end with Ahab himself.

The Attempt to Create A Myth

According to certain critics, Herman Melville was better informed and more deeply interested in problems of myth than any American writer of his time. Since America is said not to possess genuine tradition and myth, Melville tries to create one through his myth of the whale, its hunter and so on. Mardi is another book in which Melville creates myth and goes from story to myth, instead of coming from myth to story.

Conflict between Eastern and Western Ideology.

Since Ahab has an Eastern name, and Moby Dick a Western one like Uncle Sam. Eastern ideology that strives for its existence, is crushed by the physical strength of Western ideology.

Conflict between the Colonizer and Colonized

We can also reinterpret the novel as the reenactment of the American War of Independence, in the enterprising spirit of Ahab, his craftsmanship and entrepreneurship. Even though Ahab succumbs at the end his victory is achieved in his struggle like Santiago in “The Old man and the Sea; and thus illustrates that man can be destroyed but never defeated. This is significant as Transcendentalism originated from New England

Spiritual Aspects

As for the spiritual aspects, in Christianity, it can represent the reenactment of the crucifixion of Christ.(throwing of the harpoons)According to Hinduism, it can be taken as the endeavour of the Jeevatma and Paramaatma. According to Islam, it can refer to pilgrimage: the stone-throwing at the devil in the ritual of Hajj.

© Rukhaya MK 2010
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